Author Topic: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~  (Read 12715 times)

Offline MysteRy

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #15 on: May 19, 2012, 03:03:31 PM »
Khushwant Singh Biography



Born - 2 February 1915
Achievements - A significant post-colonial writer in the English language, Khushwant Singh is known for his clear-cut secularism, wit and a deep passion for poetry. A regular contributor to various national dailies, Singh is also famous for his novel 'Train to Pakistan penned in the year 1956.

Khushwant Singh is a senior prominent Indian novelist cum journalist. He was born on 2 February 1915 at Hadali in British India that is now a part of Punjab in Pakistan. A significant post-colonial writer in the English language, Khushwant Singh is known for his clear-cut secularism, humor and a deep passion for poetry. His assessment and comparison of social and behavioral traits of people from India and the West is full of outstanding wit. Here's more information on the biography of Khushwant Singh.

Infact, Khuswant Singh's writing is so popular that his weekly newspaper column, "With Malice towards One and All", published in many Indian national dailies is among the most widely-read commentaries in the country. Singh completed his bachelor's from the Government College at Lahore and thereafter, pursued further studies in law at King's College in London, UK. Sir Sobha Singh, Khushwant Singh's father, then used to work at a reputed builder in Lutyens' Delhi. Read on about life history of Khuswant Singh.

Once while still practicing as a lawyer in the High Court of Lahore, Khushwant Singh was on his way to his family's summer residence at Kasauli at the foothills of the Himalayas. It was just days prior to the partition of India and Pakistan in August 1947. Singh was driving his car when he came across a jeep full of Sikhs on an unusually vacant road that day. The Sikh men pridefully narrated to him how they had just butchered away all residents of a Muslim village.

All these instances found vivid description in the book 'Train to Pakistan' Khushwant Singh later wrote in 1956. In the time to come, Singh was appointed to edit Yojana, a journal published by the Indian government. Other publications whose editing Singh was encharged with were the Illustrated Weekly of India, a newsweekly and two other major Indian dailies - The National Herald and the Hindustan Times. Under his leadership, The Illustrated Weekly came to be hailed as India's pre-eminent newsweekly.

There's many other kudos bagged by Khushwant Singh. For instance, Singh was a Rajya Sabha member of the Indian parliament from 1980 to 1986. He was also honored with the Padma Bhushan award in the year 1974 for service to his country, but he returned the award in protest against the siege of the Golden Temple by the Indian Army in 1984. Undeterred, the Indian government awarded Singh an even more prestigious honor, the Padma Vibhushan in the year 2007.

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #16 on: May 19, 2012, 03:06:16 PM »
Nirad C. Chaudhuri Biography



Born - 23 November 1897
Died - 1999
Achievements - Nirad C. Chaudhuri was an eminent Bengali Indian writer and journalist. He was appointed the political speaker for the Calcutta branch of the All India Radio and has also edited several prestigious magazines. He will always be remembered for his phenomenal biography 'The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian' published in the year 1951.

Nirad C. Chaudhuri was a famous Bengali Indian writer. He was born on 23 November in 1897 at Kishoreganj located in the Mymensingh district of East Bengal of those days or today's Bangladesh. He studied at Kishorganj and then in Kolkata city. As a student of history at the Scottish Church College, Nirad C Chaudhuri topped the University of Calcutta, which was a rare distinction at that time. Read on further about the biography of Nirad C Chaudhuri.

Nirad C Chaudhuri began his career as clerk in the accounting department of the Indian Army and also started writing stories for popular magazines. His first article on Bengali poet, Bharat Chandra was published in Modern Review, a popular English magazine of those times. After this, he entered the field of journalism and began editing various magazines. Nirad C Chaudhuri also temporarily introduced two highly esteemed Bengali magazines, Samasamayik and Notun Patrika.

Finally in the year 1938, Nirad bagged a job as the secretary to the great Indian political leader, Sarat Chandra Bose. Due to this, he got ample opportunity to meet various renowned leaders of India like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru and others. In the year 1932, Nirad C Chaudhuri married Amiya Dhar who was herself a very prolific writer. Later on, Nirad C Chaudhuri was elected as a political speaker for the Calcutta branch of the All India Radio.

Writing was Nirad C Chaudhuri's innate passion and he pursued this until the very end. His last work was published at the age of 99. Nirad will always be remembered for his phenomenal biography 'The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian' published in the year 1951. It put him directly on the short list of great Indian English writers of those days. The book traces the height of the British Raj in India till its eventual dissolution. He died at Oxford in England two months short of his 102nd birthday in the year 1999.

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #17 on: May 19, 2012, 03:09:41 PM »
Subhadra Kumari Chauhan Biography



Born - 1904
Died - 1948
Achievements - Subhadra Kumari Chauhan was a distinguished Indian poetess, whose compositions used to be very emotionally charged. Her most well-known composition is Jhansi Ki Rani narrating the life of the brave Jhansi Ki Rani, Lakshmi Bai. Of the entire Hindi literature, it is this poem that's most recited and sung by the people of India. The government of India has named an Indian coast guard ship in her remembrance.

Subhadra Kumari Chauhan was a prominent poetess in India, whose writings used to be very emotionally charged. She was born in 1904 at the Nihalpur village in Allahabad district. But after her wedding to a Thakur Laxman Singh of Khandwa, Chauhan shifted to Jabalpur in the year 1919. Here, Subhadra Kumari Chauhan joined the famous non-cooperation movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1921 and became the very first woman Satyagrahi in the country to court arrest at Nagpur.

Read on this biography to know more about the life history of Subhadra Kumari Chauhan. Infact, she was put behind the bar twice because she dared to raise her voice against the British rule in India. Chauhan has also penned a plethora of works in Hindi poetry. Her most well-known composition is Jhansi Ki Rani narrating the life of the brave Jhansi Ki Rani, Lakshmi Bai. Of the entire Hindi literature, it is this poem that's most recited and sung by the people of India. Some of her other famous poems include Veeron Ka Kaisa Ho Basant, Rakhi Ki Chunauti and Vida. These too explicitly talk about the freedom movement.

The poems and songs written by Subhadra Kumari Chauhan have served as a source of motivation for so many Indian youths to take part in the Indian independence struggle. She predominantly used the simple and clear Khariboli dialect of Hindi in her writings. Other than these, Chauhan also used to write poems for children. She has penned many short stories based on the lifestyle of the middle-class Indians. However, she died suddenly in a car accident in 1948. The government of India has named an Indian coast guard ship after her.

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #18 on: May 19, 2012, 03:12:03 PM »
Subramanya Bharathi Biography



Born - 11 December 1882
Died - 11 September 1921
Achievements - Subramanya Bharathi was a Tamil poet, reformer and freedom fighter during the pre-independence era. His used the adeptness at poetry to the best of his ability to coax the masses in the south to join the great Indian struggle for independence. Bharathi's name is counted amongst the most celebrated bards of the country.

Subramanya Bharathi was a Tamil poet, reformer and freedom fighter during the pre-independence era. Also referred to by the name of Mahakavi Bharathiyar meaning Great Poet of Tamil, Bharathi's name is counted amongst the most celebrated bards of the country. He was an expert at both prose and poetry and used these to the best of his ability to coax the masses in the south to join the great Indian struggle for independence. His time was the most eventful one in the history of India and his contemporaries included the likes of Mahatma Gandhi, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Sri Aurobindo and V.V.S. Aiyar.

Read on to know more about Subramanya Bharathi, who got attracted to the Hindu spirituality and nationalism during his stay at Varanasi. He attended the meeting of the All India National Congress in the year 1905 here and on his return also got the opportunity to meet Sister Nivedita, the spiritual daughter of the great Indian philosopher and thinker, Swami Vivekananda. Subramanya Bharathi felt very impressed on meeting Sister Nivedita. This phase proved to be a crucial turning point in the life history of Subramanya Bharathi.

He now began to take active interest in the affairs of the outside. As such, Subramanya Bharathi entered the sphere of journalism by joining as assistant editor of a Tamil daily 'Swadeshamitran' in 1904. In the coming time, he became the editor of a Tamil weekly 'India' and another English newspaper 'Bala Bharatham' in 1907. These newspapers not only helped to awaken the feeling of nationalism among the masses and inform about the daily affairs of the outside world, but also served to bring out the creativity of Bharathi.

Bharathi began to publish his poems regularly in these editions and the themes often delved from complex religious hymns to rousing nationalist sentiments to songs on the Russian and French revolutions. He was simultaneously against social poverty, exploitation and abuse of the downtrodden people and the British ruling over the country. Though he lived a life of utter poverty, he was always positive in his thoughts and action.

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #19 on: May 19, 2012, 03:15:51 PM »
Mahasweta Devi Biography



Born - 1926
Achievements - Mahasweta Devi is an eminent Indian Bengali writer, who has been studying and writing incessantly about the life and struggles faced by the tribal communities in the states like Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

Mahasweta Devi is a reputed Indian writer who was born in the year 1926 into a middle class Bengali family at Dacca, which is located in present day Bangladesh. She received her education from the prestigious Shantiniketan set up by great Indian philosopher and thinker, Rabindranath Tagore that went on to become a part of the Visva Bharti University later on. Mahasweta Devi graduated from the University of Calcutta and this was followed by an MA degree in English from the Visva Bharti University.

Read on to know more about the biography of Mahasweta Devi. Since her entire family had shifted to India by now, Devi began teaching at the Bijoygarh College in 1964. In those times, this particular college was a forum operating for elite female students. This phase was also utilized by Mahasweta Devi to work as a journalist and a creative writer. Of late, Mahasweta Devi is known to have been studying the life history of rural tribal communities in the Indian state of West Bengal and also women and dalits.

Mahasweta Devi is a social activist who has wholly involved herself to work for the struggles of the tribal people in states like Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. In the fiction themed on Bengal which Devi writes, she often narrates the brutal oppression faced by the tribal people at the hands of the powerful upper caste persons comprising landlords, money lenders and government officials in this belt.

During the 2006 Frankfurt Book Fair when India happened to be the first country to have been invited to this fair for a second time, Mahasweta Devi made a very touching inaugural speech which moved many among the listeners to tears. Inspired by the famous Raj Kapoor song, she said: "This is truly the age where the Joota (shoe) is Japani (Japanese), Patloon (pants) is Englistani (British), the Topi (hat) is Roosi (Russian), But the Dil (heart) is always Hindustani (Indian)"

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #20 on: May 19, 2012, 03:22:05 PM »
Dilip Chitre Biography



Born On: September 17, 1938
Born In: Baroda, Gujarat
Died On: December 10, 2009
Career: Poet, Painter & Filmmaker
Nationality: Indian

Dilip Purushottam Chitre is often described in epitaphs with titles such as 'legendary', "the rarest of rare" and "all rounder", which had sat lightly on the unfazed shoulders of the man. And when one reads the ideas and thoughts described in words that had flown out of his pen, the experience can only be described as nothing short being impeccable. As an artist there are perhaps very few who can equal him and it is hard to find someone with such an enormous body and diversity of work. From filmmaking to painting to poetry in which he had been considered as a master, Dilip Chitre had made enormous contributions. When most writers found it tough to master even one language, Dilip Chitre had honed his art in both English and Marathi and emerged as the titan in both of these languages. It can safely be said that he had the Midas touch, no matter what he did whether writing, translating, composing, or making movies; he managed to wow critics and win awards. A multi-faceted personality, Dilip Chitre had left a mark as an artist and critic. He is considered to be one of the foremost writers to have emerged after independence.

Childhood & Early Life
Dilip Chitre was born to Purushottam Chitre, in the year 1938 in Gujarat. His father was the publisher of a critically-acclaimed periodical called Abhiruchi. In 1951, at the age of 12, his family moved to Mumbai. Initially he studied at an English-medium school, but after three years he shifted to a Marathi-medium school. While in school, junior Chitre became fluent in Gujarati, Hindi and English and obviously Marathi which was his mother tongue. He then learned Bengali and Urdu as well. From the age of sixteen, Chitre began to seriously write poetry. His literary career took a definite shape when he started writing for the Marathi magazine, Satyakatha, while as a student in Mumbai. In Mumbai, Chitre graduated in English honors and then worked as a journalist and a college tutor.

Middle Years
He was the most important influences in the 'little magazine movement' of the sixties in Marathi. Together with Ramesh Samarth and Arun Kolatkar, he started the magazine 'Shabda' devoted exclusively to poetry in 1954. In the year 1959, Dilip Chitre published his first book of poems in Marathi titled Kavita. A year later, in 1960, he bagged a contract to teach English in government high schools in Ethiopia for 3 years. There he even learned the language Amharic. At the age of 25 with the expiration of the contract, Chitre returned to Mumbai and lived here till the age of 37. During this time, he dabbled at various jobs ranging from stints at an advertizing agency, a pharmaceutical company, a civil rights NGO to freelancing as a film scriptwriter, translator and journalist. At the age of 37, the Indian Express group hired Dilip Chitre as a Creative Executive. During the emergency era of 1975 to 1977, he accepted an invitation from the University of Iowa to join their International Writing Program as a Fellow. He stayed on in the US even after his fellowship tenure ended and returned only at the end of 1977. In US, Chitre conducted creative writing workshops for school kids at Cedar Rapids.

Interests & Influences
Since the age of 10, Dilip Chitre had a passionate interest in drawing, painting, music and photography. During his student years in Mumbai, he had the opportunity to meet and mingle with artists, musicians and photographers. At the age of 16, he met the vocalist Pandit Sharadchandra Arolkar, to whose house he would visit frequently. The maestro had a huge influence on young Chitre's ideas in life and art. The city of Mumbai also had a deep influence on his early work, both in his Marathi and English poetry. Apart from these, Chitre was also deeply influenced by his maternal grandfather, as it was his grandfather who introduced him to the 17th century saint-poet Tukaram.

Later Life
In the year 1985, Dilip Chitre was the convener of the Valmiki World Poetry Festival held at New Delhi. He was also the director of Vagrant World Poetry Festival, held at Bharat Bhavan, Bhopal. From 1991 to 1992, he was the D.A.A.D (German Academic Exchange) Fellow and Writer-in-Residence at the Universities of Heidelberg and Bamberg in Germany. He was also a member of the International Jury at the literature festival in Berlin. Throughout his later career, Chitre traveled widely giving lectures, readings, participating in talks and seminars and conducting creative writing workshops in both India and abroad.

Poetry
Dilip Chitre has published poetry collections in both Marathi and English. His early poems have been described as stylish, metrical, and spontaneous as well as erotic and sensuous. In his later works, various other big cities of the world figure prominently as he considered these cities to "connect with all the major themes of life and death". Though proficient in English, Chitre's first collection of poems in this language was published only in 1980, about 20 years after the publication of his Marathi collection. His most notable works include the 'Travelling in the Cage', a collection of English poems and 'Ekun Kavita', the three volumes of collected poems in Marathi. One of his collections of poems even won the Sahitya Academy Award, India's highest literary award, in 1994.

Translation
Dilip Chitre was also recognized as an accomplished translator as he had translated both prose and poetry. His best known work was the English translation of the devotional poems of the 17th century bhakti poet, Tukaram published as 'Says Tuka'. This translation received the Sahitya Academy Award in the same year as when he won for a collection of poems. He had also translated Anubhavamrut by the twelfth century bhakti poet, Dnyaneshwar.

Films
In 1969, Dilip Chitre started his professional film career with documentaries and short films. He had made only a single movie called 'Godan', in 1984 which was in Hindi and won several awards including the Prix Special du Jury in France in 1984. However, apart from that one movie, Chitre made about twenty video documentary features, a dozen documentary films, and a few short films. He also wrote the scripts and sometimes, scored the music as well. With Henning Stegmuller, Chitre produced the film Bombay: Geliebter Moloch for a German TV channel.

Personal Life And Death
Dilip Chitre married his wife Viju when he was only 22 years old. Their only son was a victim of the Bhopal Gas Tradegy. He was suffering from cancer for five years and after a prolonged illness, succumbed to the disease on 10th December, 2009 at his home in Pune.

Awards & Honors

Worked as an honorary editor of the quarterly journal New Quest, Mumbai.

Was honored with several Maharashtra State Awards.

Was facilitated with the Prix Special du Jury for his film 'Godam', at the Festival des Trois Continents at Nantes in France, in 1984

Earned the Ministry of Human Resource Development's Emeritua Fellowship, the University of Iowa's International Writing Program Fellowship, the Indira Gandhi Fellowship, the Villa Waldberta Fellowship for residence given by the city of Munich, Bavaria, Germany

Held the position of Director of Vagarth, Bharat Bhavan Bhopal and the Convenor-Director of Valmiki World Poetry Festival (New Delhi, 1985) and International Symposium of Poets (Bhopal, 1985)

Was D.A.A.D. (German Academic Exchange) Fellow and Writer-in-Residence at the Universities of Heidelberg and Bamberg in Germany, from 1991 till 1992.

Won the Sahitya Academy Award, India's highest literary award, twice in 1994.

Was a keynote speaker at the World Poetry Congress in Maebashi, Japan (1996) and at the Ninth International Conference on Maharashtra at Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA in 2001

Was a member of the International Jury at the recent Literature festival Berlin, 2001.

Timeline

1938: Dilip Chitre was born in a traditional Marathi family.

1951: Moved with his family to Mumbai.

1960: Published his first collection of poems.

1969: Started his career in film industry.

1975: Went to the University of Iowa for a writing program.

1980: Published the first English collection of poems.

1984: Won the Prix Special du Jury for the film 'Godan'.

1994: Won the Sahitya Academy Award once for his poetry collection and again for translation.

2009: Passed away after a long bout of illness on December 10.

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #21 on: May 21, 2012, 03:24:15 PM »
Sarat Chandra Chatterji Biography



Born On: September 15, 1876
Born In: Debanandpur, Hooghly
Died On: January 16, 1938
Career: Bengali Novelist
Nationality: Indian

His stories and novels speak for themselves. Poverty showered through his materialistic situations while his psychosomatic dimensions supported him. Sarat Chandra Chatterji was one such eminent Bengali writer who flourished throughout the country despite tasting poverty since birth. But his monetary conditions did not stop this legendary writer from exploring his writing skills and emerging as one of the most recognized litterateurs the 20th century had ever given to India. In fact, his inspiration, ingredients, and storylines were derived from his life-like characters that helped him create his own inimitable style. The distinctive features and essence of purpose further added to his writing skills, displaying a more attractive and lucrative technique. It was for this reason that his several novels were translated into other languages and even filmed.

Early Life
Sarat Chandra Chatterji was born in the village of Devanandpur in Hooghly district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Born in an extremely deprived and poor family, he and his family members were financially supported by other members. Until his father was employed in Bihar, Sarat and the rest of the family resided with his paternal uncle in Bhagalpur. However, the frequent changing financial conditions led to a number of school changes for Sarat. He received his formal education in Bhagalpur before clearing the entrance exam and attaining admission in Tejnarayan Jubilee College in 1894. It was here when he got in touch with English literature and read Charles Dickens' novels "Tale of Two Cities" and "David Copperfield", and Lord Litton's "My Love".

Literary Career
Sarat Chandra Chatterji claimed that his father's unfinished and unpublished literary work served as his greatest inspiration for writing. Thus, with the creation of handwritten children's magazine called "Shisu" by Bhagalpur Shitya Sabha, his first two stories "Kakbasha" and "Kashinath" were published in 1894. But to his dismay, his mother passed away in 1895. As if this was enough, Sarat had to drop out of college the following year due to financial instability wherein his father was forced to sell the Devanandpur house at a mere Rs. 225. The entire family shifted to Bhagalpur finally, where Sarat met a number of people who played an important role in his writing career. Some amongst them include Anupama (later known as Nirupama Devi, author of Annapurnaar Mandir), her brother Bibhutibhushan Bhatta, and Rajendranath Majumdar, nicknamed as Raju. He started working in Godda's Banali Estate which he gave up to begin work at Santhal district settlement.

However, he gave up this job as well and left home after a disagreement with his father. After wandering for days, he joined a party of Naga Monks and went to Muzaffarpur in 1902. During this period, his father died and came back to Bhagalpur for a short period to complete his last rites. From here, he traveled to Calcutta where he found a job offering him a meager salary of Rs. 30. A year later in 1903, he went to Rangoon, Burma in search of a better career prospect. However, on request from his Surendranath uncle, he sent his short story "Mandir" for a competition and won the first prize. It was later published in 1904 in his uncle's name. Besides, he wrote several stories in other people's name, such as his elder sister, Anila Devi, and Anupama, in the Jamuna magazine. He wrote a long story titled "Bada Didi" which was published in two installments in the magazine Bharati in 1907. With this, began the journey of a poor struggling person who grew to become a noteworthy novelist. His other striking works included Bindur Chele, Ramer Sumati, and Arakshaniya. Since he was highly influenced by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, his works resembled the latter's style, some of them being Devdas, Parinita, Biraj Bau, and Palli Samaj.

Later Life
After struggling with small jobs, he found permanent employment in the accounts department of Public Works, where he served until his return to Calcutta in 1916. In Calcutta, he continued to write on a regular basis and his works were published in all magazines. It was during this period that he gained enormous popularity. His "Viraj Bou" was staged for the first time in Star Theatre in 1918. Further, it was the first novel to be translated into Hindi by Chandrashekhar Pathak in 1919. This was followed by "Datta" into Marathi in 1920 and later in Gujarati in 1921. The first part of "Srikanto" was translated and published in English by Oxford University Press in 1922. This was later converted into Italian in 1925. He was honored with the Jaggattarini Gold Medal in 1923, followed by worldwide recognition as one of the best novelists by Romain Rolland in 1925. He was further conferred upon with a D. Litt. Degree by Dacca (now Dhaka) University in 1936.

Bartaman Hindu-Mussalman Samasya
Apart from his literary and painting career, Sarat Chandra Chatterji took active participation in Indian freedom movement. As a result, he even became the president of Howrah District Congress. He stood for the equality of Hindu-Muslim rites and essayed the issues of love and marriage. To illustrate these problems, he penned an essay titled "Bartaman Hindu-Mussalman Samasya", meaning Contemporary Hindu-Muslim Problem, which was presented at Bengal Provincial conference of 1926. He spoke for the Muslim behavior that was characterized as brutal, barbaric, and fanatic. He supported the internal unity of the Hindu community.

Personal Life
Sarat Chandra Chatterji first married Shanti Devi in 1906 and had a son in 1907. However, both his wife and son succumbed to plague and died in 1908. To fill his disastrous and miserable life, he indulged himself into studying sociology, politics, philosophy, health sciences, psychology, and history from books borrowed from Barnerd Free Library. To add to his depression, he was advised to cut short his study hours due to health issues in 1909. As such, Sarat discovered a new interest in painting, his first being Ravan-Mandodori. His second marriage took place in 1910 to an adolescent widow Mokshada, who was later renamed as Hiranmoyee.

Death
Sarat Chandra Chatterji, popularly known as the Immortal Wordsmith throughout Bengal, died on January 16, 1938 in Park Nursing Home, Calcutta. He was suffering from liver cancer. The entire Bengal mourned his death.

Notable Works
Mandir, 1904
Baradidi (The Elder Sister), 1907
Bindur Chhele (Bindu's Son), 1913
Parinita/Parineeta, 1914
Biraj Bou (Mrs. Biraj), 1914
Ramer Shumoti (Ram Returning to Sanity), 1914
Palli Shomaj (The Village Commune), 1916
Arakhsanya (The Girl Whose Marriage Is Overdue), 1916
Debdas/Devdas, 1917 (written in 1901)
Choritrohin (Characterless), 1917
Srikanto (4 parts, 1917, 1918, 1927, 1933)
Datta (The Girl Given Away), 1917-19
Grihodaho (Home Burnt), 1919
Dena Paona (Debts and Demands), 1923
Pather Dabi (Demand for a Pathway), 1926
Ses Prasna (The Final Question), 1931
Bipradas, 1935

Timeline
1876: Sarat Chandra Chatterji was born in Devanandpur, Hooghly
1894: Took admission in Tejnarayan Jubilee College
1894: His first two stories 'Kakbasha' and 'Kashinath' were published
1902: Joined Naga Monks in Muzaffarpur
1903: Went to Rangoon, Burma
1904: His short story 'Mandir' won the first prize and got published
1906: Married first wife Shanti Devi
1907: His famous 'Bada Didi' was published in two installments
1908: Wife Shanti Devi and one-year old son die
1910: Married second wife Mokshada, later renamed Hiranmoyee
1916: Returned to Calcutta
1923: Honored with Jaggattarini Gold Medal
1926: Presented the essay 'Bartaman Hindu-Mussalman Samasya'
1936: Dacca (now Dhaka) University awarded the D. Litt. Degree
1938: Died on January 16, at the age of 61 years.

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #22 on: May 21, 2012, 03:29:23 PM »
Dharamvir Bharati Biography



Born On: December 25, 1926
Born In: Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
Died On: September 4, 1997
Occupation: Novelist, Poet, Playwright
Nationality: Indian

The name Dharamvir Bharati brings to mind a collection of Hindi poems, plays and novels that are still used by the present generation for organizing stage plays and making films. Dharamvir Bharati is the greatest author in the world of Hindi literature. However, his contribution does not end there. Dharamvir Bharati was also a social thinker who believed in extending a helping hand towards the society. During his lifetime, Dharamvir Bharati had been the editor-in-chief of the famous Hindi magazine "Dharmayug". Some of his most famous writings "Gunahon Ka Devta", "Andha Yug" and "Suraj Ka Satwan Ghoda" are referred to as classics today.

Early Life
Dharamvir Bharati was born on Christmas Day in the year 1926 in the city of Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh. His parents Chiranji Lal and Chanda Devi had two children, Dharamvir and his sister Veerbala. His father died at a very early age after they were hit by an acute financial crisis. Dharamvir continued to secure good results in his studies despite his personal loss and completed his master's degree in Hindi from the Allahabad University in the year 1946. It was in college itself that his talent in the Hindi language was identified by teachers who rewarded him with the 'Chintamani Ghosh Award' for scoring the top marks in Hindi during his session. Dharamvir started working immediately after completing college and it was only a few years later that he was able to complete his research work, thus getting the Ph. D degree.

Career
After completing his masters in Hindi, Dharamvir joined the "Abhyudaya" and "Sangam" magazines as the sub editor. After working for more than five years, Dharamvir started working on his thesis paper choosing to do a research work on Siddha Sahitya, under Dr Dhirendra Verma. When he earned his Ph. D degree in the year 1954, Dharamvir Bharati secured a position of lecturer in Hindi at the Allahabad University. While he continued to educate students in his alma mater, Dharamvir also utilized his free time to write his own poems, novels and plays. Reports claim that it was during this time that Dharamvir Bharati wrote the maximum part of his huge collection of poems and stories.

In the year 1960, Dharamveer quit his position from Allahabad University to shift base to Bombay where he became the chief editor of the popular Hindi magazine "Dharmayug". "Dharmayug" was the most widely selling Hindi language magazine in India during that point of time. It was published by the Times India Group. Dharamvir Bharati's stint with "Dharmayug" took the magazine to greater heights of popularity in the field of Hindi journalism. Dharamvir Bharati served under the magazine from 1960 to 1987, during which he did not only do the editing work, but also parts of the reporting work for the magazine. The poet and playwright personally covered the Indo-Pak war of 1965 for "Dharmayug".

Collection of Writing

Poetry
"Thanda Loha", "Sapana Abhi Bhi", "Saat Geet Varsh" and "Kanupriya" are the most famous poems that have been written by Dharamvir Bharati.

Novels
"Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda" was probably the most famous work of Dharamvir Bharati in this genre. The set of narrations written in this novel became so popular that it was later translated to the Bengali language by eminent poet Malay Roy Choudhury and also won him the Sahitya Academy Award. The novel was also adapted to the big screen by filmmaker Shyam Benegal, for which he won the National Award. "Gunahon Ka Devta", "Prarambh Va Samapan" and "Giyara Sapno Ka Desh" are the popular novels written by Dharamvir Bharati.

Plays
"Andha Yug" was and will always remain one of the most popular plays ever written in Hindi literature. It is still enacted on stage. This play, the dialogues for which have been written in poetry-style, was inspired from the Mahabharata. Dharamvir Bharati based the story of "Andha Yug" on the last day of the famous Indian epic.

Essays
Apart from novels, poems and plays, Dharamvir Bharati also compiled a collection of essays during the 1950s. "Thele Par Himalayas", "The River Was Thirsty", "Apshynty Stories: Unkahi, Human Values and Literature", "Neil Lake" and "Cold Iron" were some of the essays that Dharamvir Bharati wrote.

Short Stories
Dharamvir Bharati was an expert in all genre of writing in Hindi. He wrote a couple of short stories to be published under a single heading. "Swarg Aur Prathvhi", "Band Gali Ka Aakhkri Makhaan", "Chand Aur Tuthe Hue Log", "Samast Kahaniya Ek Saath" and "Saas Ki Kalam Se" are the collection of stories written by Dharamvir Bharati.

Awards & Recognition
To reward an illustrious career in Hindi writing spanning several decades, the government of India conferred prestigious awards to Dharamvir Bharati at several stages of his life. A list of the awards that Dharamvir Bharati won has been listed below:

Padmashree Award in the year 1972

Rajendra Prasad Shikhar Samman

Kaudiya Nyas

Valley Turmeric Best Journalism Awards in 1984

Bharat Bharati Samman

Vyasa Samman

Maharana Mewar Foundation Award for best playwright in 1988

The Sangeet Natak Akademi award in the year 1989

Maharana Gaurav award in 1994

Dr Dharamvir Bharati was also remembered and honored through the screening of a documentary feature film on his life and works. The film 'Dr Bharati’ was made and showcased posthumously by storywriter Uday Prakash. This documentary was screened in the year 1999 at the Sahitya Akademi in New Delhi.

Personal Life
Dharamvir Bharati was married twice and shares three children with his two wives. He married Kanta Bharati in the year 1954 but the marriage ended in divorce. The couple had a daughter named Parmita. Dharamvir Bharati tied the nuptial knot again this time to Pushpa Bharati. The couple was blessed with two children Kinshuk Bharati and Pragya Bharati.

Death
Dharamvir Bharati died at the age of 70. He was suffering from a heart disease for several years, which became the cause of his sudden death on September 4, 1997. Dharamvir will always be remembered as the greatest writer that Hindi literature has ever produced.

Timeline
1926: Dharamvir Bharati was born on December 25.
1946: Completed his MA from Allahabad University.
1954: Completed his PhD and joins Allahabad University as lecturer.
1954: Married Kanta Bharati.
1960: Became editor-in-chief of "Dharmayug" magazine.
1972: Won Padmashree Award from Indian government.
1984: Was bestowed with Valley Turmeric Best Journalism Award.
1987: Retired from position in "Dharmayug" magazine.
1988: Received Maharana Mewar Foundation Award for best playwright.
1989: Won award from Sangeet Natak Akademi.
1992: His novel "Suraj Ka Satwan Ghoda" was made into a film by Shyam Benegal.
1994: Felicitated Maharashtra Gaurav award.
1997: Died on September 4.
1999: His life is recorded in a documentary film by Sahitya Akademi in New Delhi.

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #23 on: May 21, 2012, 03:34:47 PM »
Harivansh Rai Bachchan Biography



Born On: November 27, 1907
Born In: Pratapgarh, Uttar Pradesh
Died On: January 18, 2003
Career:Poet
Nationality: Indian

"A body of clay, a mind full of play, a moment's life - that is me". That is how one of the doyens of Hindi literature, Harivansh Rai Bachchan described himself. And indeed, reading his poems, one feels a sense of life and playfulness, the two aspects which would become the hallmark of his poetry. In a career that spanned for about 60 years, he was the torch bearer of the Chhayavaad or Romantic upsurge literary movement, though later in life he came to be known more because of his famous son, Amitabh Bachchan, than his poetry. But there was a time when thousands and thousands would fill into theaters and auditoriums just to listen to him recite his poems, a particular favorite being the epochal 'Madushala'. His poetry is noted for its lyrical beauty and rebellious attitude with imagery that is unfettered and sensuous that placed him in a different league from his contemporaries in the Chhayavaad movement. Harivansh Rai Bachchan became the epitome of the romantic rebel. Through his poems he focused on the common man's urge for freedom and the sensuousness underlying in this quest, which made him a literary star embraced by the public.

Childhood
Harivansh Rai 'Bachchan' Srivastav was born in the year 1907 in the village Babupatti near Allahabad in a Kayastha family to Pratap Narayan Shrivastav and Saraswati Devi. He was their eldest born. As a child, he was fondly called 'bachchan' because of his child-like ways. The moniker stuck with him, thus becoming one of the most recognizable names.

Early Life
Harivansh Rai Bachchan started his education from a municipal school. It was the same time that he also started learning Urdu from Kayasth Paathshaalas. Later, he pursued his higher education from Allahabad University and Banaras Hindu University. In 1941 he joined the English department of Allahabad University as a faculty and taught there till 1952. He then went to Cambridge for two years to do his doctoral thesis on W.B Yeats and occultism, becoming the second Indian to get a Ph. D. in English Literature from this university. It was also during this time that he dropped Srivastav from his name and used Bachchan as his last name. He then came back to India and took up teaching, while at the same time, serving sometime at the Allahabad Station of All India Radio.

Later Life
Harivansh Rai Bachchan later moved on to Delhi in 1955 to join the External Affairs Ministry as a Special Officer in the Hindi cell, translating official documents into Hindi. He served for a period of ten years. During this time, he also worked on promoting Hindi as the official language of India as well as translating some of the major works into Hindi like Macbeth, Othello, Bhagvad Gita, the works of W.B Yeats and the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.

Works
Harivansh Rai Bachchan is best remembered for his 142 verse lyrical poem "Madhushala" (The House of Wine), which was published in 1935. This work catapulted him as the foremost Hindi poet and was subsequently, translated into English and a number of Indian languages. The poem became a craze and was even performed on stage. "Madhushala" was a part of his poetic trilogy, the other two being Madhubaala and Madhukalash. It is on this trilogy that his fame rests. In 1969, he published the first of his four part autobiography 'Kya bhooloon kya yaad karoon'. The second part 'Need ka nirmaan fir' was published in 1970, the third 'Basere se door' in 1977 and the last part 'Dashdwaar se sopaan tak' in 1985. The series was well received and an abridged English translation by Rupert Snell, 'In the Afternoon of Time', was published in 1998. It is now considered to be a landmark in Hindi literature. Throughout his teaching career and while working in the External Affairs ministry and later, Bachchan published about 30 poetry collections as well as other works in Hindi like essays, travelogues and a few songs for the Hindi film industry. He also read his poems to large audiences. His last poem 'Ek November 1984' based on Indira Gandhi's assassination was written in November 1984.

Awards And Recognition
In 1966, Harivansh Rai Bachchan was nominated to the Rajya Sabha and in 1969 he received the Sahitya Akademi Award. Seven years later the Government of India bestowed on him the Padma Bhushan in recognition for his contribution to Hindi literature. In addition he was also awarded the Sovietland Nehru Award, the Lotus Award of the Afro-Asian writers' conference and the Saraswati Samman. The Uttar Pradesh government conferred him the "Yash Bharati" Samman in 1994. A postage stamp was released in 2003 in his memory.

Personal Life
Bachchan first married in the year 1926 when he was just 19 years old and his wife, Shyama, was 14 years old. In 1936, she passed away succumbing to TB. Five years later, Bachchan married Teji Suri with whom he had two children Amitabh and Ajitabh.

Death
At the age of 95, in 2003, Harivansh Rai Bachchan breathed his last. He was suffering from respiratory ailments. Four years later his wife passed away at the age of 93.

Timeline
1907: Harivansh Rai Bachchan was born in a Kayastha family in Uttar Pradesh.
1926: Married his first wife.
1935: Madhushala, his seminal work, was published.
1941: Became a faculty of the English department in Allahabad University and marries a second time.
1953: Went to Cambridge to pursue his doctoral thesis.
1955: Joined the Hindi Cell of the External Affairs ministry.
1984: Published his last poem.
1966: Nominated to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian parliament.
1969: Received the Sahitya Academi Award.
2003: Harivansh Rai Bachchan breathed his last.

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #24 on: May 21, 2012, 04:09:36 PM »
Hasrat Jaipuri Biography



Born On: April 15, 1922
Born In: Jaipur, Rajasthan
Died On: September 17, 1999
Occupation: Poet and Bollywood lyricist
Nationality: Indian

Hasrat Jaipuri is one of those celebrated poets who have gone down as immortal in the history of Hindi film songs. A poet who composed lines in Urdu, Persian and Hindi, he went on to become one of the most popular lyricists that the Hindi film industry in India has ever seen. His poetry and film compositions reflected an amalgamation of both Hindi and Urdu. Born in a Muslim family of Rajasthan in India, poetry was a part of Hasrat Jaipuri's life from the early years of his childhood. Once a bus conductor by profession, little did the world know then that there was so much talent hidden within Hasrat Jaipuri, who may be referred to as a 'shayar' in Indian society.

Life
Hasrat Jaipuri was born as Iqbal Husain in a Muslim family of Rajasthan on April 15, 1922. Iqbal spent his entire childhood in the city of his birth, Jaipur, before shifting to Bombay where he received the best rewards for his talent of poem and song writing. Iqbal Husain was educated in only English language during the initial years of his schooling. It was later that Iqbal Husain received the title of Hasrat Jaipuri and also started his education in Urdu and Persian languages. Hasrat Jaipuri's grandfather Fida Husain was his chief tutor for both the languages. By this time, Hasrat Jaipuri was already a young man of 20. He not only learnt the two languages of Urdu and Persian, he also composed several verses in both languages. Many of his verses were composed for the love of his life Radha, a Hindu girl residing in Jaipur. The two fell in love when Hasrat Jaipuri had started writing his own poems in Urdu, Persian and also Hindi. "Yeh Mera Prem Patra Padh Kar, Ke Tum Naaraaz Na Hona" was one of the most famous lines found in his love letter to Radha. The line was immortalized almost twenty years later in a Hindi song filmed on the Bollywood heartthrob, Raj Kapoor in his film 'Sangam'. Hasrat Jaipuri was a die hard romantic who was of the opinion that love should not be categorized by religion and castes. Hasrat Jaipuri had famously said in an interview that he never expected his love to be reciprocated by Radha, and yet he loved her dearly.

Career As A Poet
Hasrat Jaipuri was equally popular as a poet and a lyricist. He wrote several poems, which were later published in his books of poetry in Hindi and Urdu. It was these two languages that found predominant use in his writings. Hasrat Jaipuri felt that both the Hindi and Urdu languages complement each other and one is incomplete without the other. Hasrat Jaipuri thought of himself as a messenger whose main motive was to spread love through his work. All his writings reflected this sentiment of Hasrat Jaipuri. According to him, he was a 'shayar' who existed in the world to fill each empty space with love. He was deeply aware of the fact that he would die soon, therefore as long as he is in this world, he believed it was his duty to spread love and cheer all over.

Career As A Lyricist
Hasrat Jaipuri began his career by selling tickets in local buses of Bombay. After traveling from Jaipur and settling in Bombay in the year 1940 with his wife Radha, Hasrat Jaipuri took up occupation as a bus conductor, earning a paltry sum of Rs. 11 at the end of each month. However, he also made sure that enough time was given towards the practice of poetry. Hasrat Jaipuri was a regular face in some of the most famous mushairas (a place where Urdu poets used to gather to share with each other their individual compositions) of Bombay during the 1940s. Therefore, Hasrat Jaipuri was in regular touch with the first love of his life, poetry.

Word has it that it was in a mushaira that legendary Bollywood actor Prithviraj Kapoor took note of the poetry composed by Hasrat Jaipuri and took the first step towards introducing him to the world of Hindi films. When his son Raj Kapoor heard about Hasrat Jaipuri, he decided to give the poet a break in his forthcoming Bollywood production 'Barsaat'. The 1949 film had music by Shankar - Jaikishan and lyrics by Hasrat Jaipuri. He debuted by penning the lyrics of the song 'Jiya Beqaraar Hai' for 'Barsaat'. This was followed by the equally popular composition 'Chhod Gaye Baalam'. 'Barsaat' was only the beginning of the success story of Hasrat Jaipuri in Bollywood and the start of his blossoming association with actor Raj Kapoor.

From 1949 through 1971, almost every single Bollywood film starring Raj Kapoor in the lead credited either had Hasrat Jaipuri or Shailendra as the lyricist. The music in these films was also composed by Shankar - Jaikishen only. With the death of Jaikishen in 1971 also ended a glorious era of Bollywood songs. Hasrat Jaipuri did not find favor from Raj Kapoor anymore largely because of the fact that songs from films 'Mera Naam Joker' and 'Kal Aaj Aur Kal' failed to draw the attention of the audience. As a result of this, Raj Kapoor was inspired to sign new lyricists and music composers for his upcoming movies.

Subsequently 'Ram Teri Ganga Maili' and 'Sangam' happened, enabling to a great extent to bring back the real flavor of a Hasrat Jaipuri writing. 'Sun Sahiba Sun' and 'I Love You' were indeed chartbuster numbers of their generation. After Raj Kapoor died in the year 1988, Bollywood was not the same place for Hasrat Jaipuri. New music composer Ravindra Jain had no respect for the genius and deliberately barred the famous lyricist from writing for further films. Help came in the form of Shailendra when he invited Hasrat Jaipuri to write the lyrics of his Bollywood production 'Teesri Kasam'. The last Hindi film song he penned was used in the 2004 release 'Hatya: The Murder'.

Career As Screenplay Writer
Bollywood lyrics and poems were not the only fields in which Hasrat Jaipuri flourished. The first part of his career with Bollywood saw the maestro in the role of screenplay writer for the movie 'Hulchul' in 1951.

Awards and Recognition
Needless to say, as a lyricist of Raj Kapoor films, Hasrat Jaipuri was successful in winning the attention and love of the Bollywood audience. Hasrat Jaipuri also received widespread critical acclamation for his contribution to Bollywood cinema. He won his first Filmfare award in the year 1966 for the wonderful poetry in the song 'Phool Barsao' from 'Suraj'. The Filmfare success was repeated with 'Zindagi Ek Safar Hai Suhana' from 'Andaz' in 1972. Hasrat Jaipuri was also the recipient of the Josh Malihabadi Award from an Urdu conference and the Dr Ambedkar Award for his lyrics in the Brajbhasha song 'Jhanak Jhanak Tori Baaje Payalia'.

Personal Life and Death
In spite of his phenomenal rise in Bollywood, Hasrat Jaipuri never forgot his roots and remained the simple man that he was from the very first day in Bombay. Several credit his lifestyle to his very supportive wife Radha, who helped him to remain grounded in spite of fame and money coming his way. Even during times when Hasrat Jaipuri did not have work in his hands and therefore no money on him, he had enough savings in property, thanks to his wife, which could help him survive lavishly. According to reports, Hasrat Jaipuri considered himself a very ordinary man and therefore always traveled by train even if he could afford the airfare. Hasrat Jaipuri died on September 17, 1999.

Timeline
1922: Hasrat Jaipuri was born as Iqbal Husain on April 15.
1940: Migrated to Bombay.
1949: Composed his first lyrics for 'Barsaat'.
1951: Wrote screenplay for 'Hulchul'.
1966: Received his first Filmfare Award for lyrics in 'Suraj'.
1972: Received second Filmfare Award.
1999: Hasrat Jaipuri died.

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #25 on: May 21, 2012, 04:12:59 PM »
Jaishankar Prasad Biography



Born On: January 30, 1889
Born In: Varanasi, India
Died On: January 14, 1937
Occupation: Poet, Novelist, Playwright
Nationality: Indian

If you are interested in Hindi literature, then you surely must have heard the name of Jaishankar Prasad. If Dharamvir Bharati is referred to as the Father of Hindi Literature, Jaishankar Prasad cannot be too far behind for he too needs to be credited for making Hindi language popular amongst the present generation. Jaishankar Prasad is truly one of the most notable figures in the world of modern Hindi literature. Although he had to drop out of school at a very early age due to financial problems that his family faced, his love for literature never died down. Apart from Hindi, Jaishankar Prasad was interested in a number of languages and their evolution. However, it was Hindi that he chose while penning his thoughts in the form of poems and novels. He was one of the greatest literary figures during his time and the best modern Hindi writer.

Childhood
Jaishankar Prasad was born in a well-to-do madheshiya vaishya family of Varanasi. However, the family's condition deteriorated over the years after the death of Jaishankar Prasad's father, when the future litterateur was still young. His father Babu Devki Prasad earned a living by buying and selling tobacco in the markets of Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. Jaishankar Prasad's family was always known as one of the elite units in Varanasi. His father passed away when he was still in school and thus, had to leave his studies after the eighth standard to help the family which was then affected by financial problems. This, however, did not mean that Jaishankar Prasad gave up on his studies. He thoroughly read books at home, mastering the grammar and literature and the evolution of many a language. It was language that interested Jaishankar Prasad, but he later shifted his attention to the study of the Vedas, an aspect that reflected in his writings that were penned later. Apart from writing poetry from a very early age, Jaishankar Prasad also had an interest in reciting poems. As a child and in his later life, he spent much of his time playing chess and doing gardening work at home.

Writing Style
Jaishankar Prasad was interested in the Vedas. The content as well as the writing pattern of the Vedas thus influenced him deeply, while he penned his own poetry, plays and novels. The first collection of poems that Jaishankar Prasad penned, named 'Chitraadhar', was written in the Braj dialect of Hindi, a dialect that is widely used in Uttar Pradesh. The entire collection of poems written by Jaishankar Prasad can best be described as touching and emotional. Not only did he pay attention to the language of his poems, but also look at their philosophic content. It is to be remembered that this ace Hindi litterateur was a philosopher as well, apart from being a writer. Therefore, this aspect too reflected in his poems. The content of Jaishankar Prasad's poetry ranged from the romantic to the patriotic. 'Himadri Tung Shring Se' is the most famous patriotic poem written by Jaishankar Prasad in the length of his career. It was written before India won its independence from the British, and was successful in popularizing the name of Jaishankar Prasad among the common masses.

During the middle of his career as a novelist, playwright and poet, Jaishankar Prasad was highly influenced by Sanskrit and other languages which originated from Sanskrit. According to reports, he read a lot of Bengali and Persian works to seek inspiration before penning his own. Jaishankar Prasad's most famous dramas 'Chandragupta', 'Skandagupta' and 'Dhruvaswamini' are inspired from Persian and Bengali plays. During the later stages of his career, Jaishankar Prasad wrote in the Khadi dialect of Hindi. The stories of the plays written by Jaishankar Prasad were most often based on true incidents taken from the history of India. The writer loved reading books on history and therefore his writings were influenced by historical incidents and also mythology. Jaishankar Prasad wrote a couple of short stories as well during the span of his brief career as a writer of Hindi literature. Expectedly, the plots of his short stories were also based either in Indian history or mythology. 'Mamta' and 'Chhota Jadugar' are two of the most popular short stories written by Jaishankar Prasad.

Kamayani
No discussion on the collection of writings by Jaishankar Prasad is complete without a special reference to 'Kamayani'. 'Kamayani' is, by far, not only the most popular work of Jaishankar Prasad; it is also one of the best collections of poetry that the Hindi literary circuit has ever seen. 'Kamayani', which has received popular and critical appreciation ever since it was published some decades ago, is still the most popular and best mahakavya that the Hindi language has witnessed. The epic poem may be described as an amalgamation of knowledge, desire and action, the three basic elements in the life of a human being. The central characters of the mahakavya, Manu, Ida and Shradha describe through their actions in the poem, the evolution of culture in humans and the mythological story of the great flood. The three characters Manu, Ida and Shradha represent human psyche, rationality and love respectively in 'Kamayani'.

Death and Beyond
Jaishankar Prasad died at a very early age of 47 on January 14 of 1937. The great Hindi litterateur is survived by three wives and their children. After his death, Shanta Gandhi, a 1960s professor of ancient Indian drama at the National School of Drama in New Delhi, took the initiative to stage several of Jaishankar Prasad's plays for the modern Indian theater. Shanta Gandhi took note of the fact that not many changes were made in the original writing of Jaishankar Prasad so that the modern generation gets a taste of the real Jaishankar Prasad writing. The first play staged by her was 'Skandagupta' which was written by the Hindi litterateur in 1928. Jaishankar Prasad is still fondly remembered as one of the pillars of Hindi literature, the other two being Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla and Munshi Premchand. Jaishankar Prasad was not only a great writer; he also made a mark as a historian and a philosopher.

Timeline
1889: Jaishankar Prasad is born on January 30.
1915: He wrote his first significant drama, 'Rajyasri'
1928: Wrote his famous play 'Skandagupta'.
1935: The long poem 'Kamayani' was published
1937: Died on January 14 aged only 47.
1960s: The National School of Drama staged plays written by Jaishankar Prasad.

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #26 on: May 21, 2012, 04:20:48 PM »
Sahir Ludhianvi Biography



Born On: March 8, 1921
Born In: Ludhiana, Punjab
Died On: October 25, 1980
Career: Poet, Lyricist
Nationality: Indian

Best remembered for penning the renowned "Kabhi kabhi mere dil mein" song from the movie "Kabhie Kabhie", Sahir Ludhianvi etched a permanent mark on songs and ghazals in the Hindi film industry. True to his name, Sahir was a magician who fascinated his listeners and readers through his marvelous compositions. His wordings have successfully created a plethora of emotions with its simple language and distinguished feelings. Despite being unable to praise God, beauty, and wine, he divulged his bitterness with sensitive lyrics through his pen. For his illustrious and magnificent compositions, he was honored with two Filmfare Awards and Padma Shri Award during his lifetime.

Early Life
Sahir Ludhianvi was born as Abdul Hayee into a rich Muslim Gujjar family in Ludhiana in Punjab. His father was a wealthy zamindar, while mother was Sardar Begum. Since birth, his parents were undergoing an estranged relationship and chose to separate when Sahir was just 13 years old. His father married for the second time and chose to take custody of Sahir, but lost due to his second marriage. As such, he threatened to snatch Sahir from his mother, no matter what step he had to take. Due to this, Sahir spent his childhood surrounded by fear and financial deprivation. He attained his formal education from Khalsa High School in Ludhiana. Thereafter, he graduated to Satish Chander Dhawan Government College For Boys in Ludhiana to pursue his higher studies. But he was expelled just after one year for being caught sitting with a female in the lawns in 1943. He left Ludhiana and traveled to Lahore in search of a better career prospect.

Bollywood Career
In Lahore, Sahir completed his first work in Urdu "Talkhiyaan" but was unable to find a publisher for the same. Finally, after two years of shuffling between Ludhiana and Lahore, he found a publisher in 1945. Thereafter, he started editing four magazines, "Adab-e-Lateef", "Shahkaar", "Prithlari", and "Savera". These magazines achieved immense success. However, due to his explosive writing in "Savera", the government of Pakistan issued an arrest warrant against him. As such, he fled from Lahore in 1949 and landed in Delhi. After spending a couple months there, he traveled to Bombay where he settled for the rest of his life and created history through his illustrious works. He made his debut into Bollywood by writing the lyrics for "Aazadi Ki Raah Par" in 1949. Though he wrote four songs, both the film and the songs sank unnoticed.

Sahir was next seen in 1951 "Naujawaan" with S.D. Burman as the music director. This movie acted as the stepping stone for him as the film worked decently. But his major recognition came with Guru Dutt's directorial debut "Baazi" in 1951, again paired with Burman. Thereafter, he was amongst the team of Guru Dutt. The combination delivered some marvelous musical performances that became legendary hits. Over his entire Bollywood career, Sahir delivered evergreen and immortal pieces of Hindi film music. Some of the most prominent movies include "Pyaasa", "Hum Dono", "Taj Mahal", "Phir Subah Hogi", "Trishul", and "Waqt". His 1976 "Kabhie Kabhie" saw the best in Sahir that went on to break all records, and bestowing him with another Filmfare Award for Best Lyricist, second to "Taj Mahal".

Poetry Career
While writing lyrics for Bollywood films were reaching skies at that time, his poetry was not left behind either. His poetry revealed a "Faizian" quality of writing. His works had that intellectual element that caught the attention of people during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. Though Sahir was egoistic by nature, probably due to his zamindari background, he was a compassionate man and felt for others, often neglecting his own needs. This nature reflected in his poetry which wrote as he aged. With different periods progressing, Sahir narrated various ages, which is not very common in many writers' style. Kahat-e-Bangal (The Famine of Bengal) talked about early maturity, while Subah-e-Navroz (Dawn of a New Day) spoke about the conditions of the poor. He was one amongst the few Urdu poets who illustrated his views towards the Taj Mahal in an entirely different manner.

Personal Life
Sahir Ludhianvi did not marry in his life and chose to remain a bachelor throughout. After experiencing two failed relationships, one with journalist Amrita Pritam and another with singer-actress Sudha Malhotra, he resolved to excessive drinking and became an alcoholic. Both the ladies' fathers rejected Sahir due to his perceived religion and atheism. Sahir and Amrita were so passionately in love with each other that she wrote his name a hundred times in sheets of paper during one press conference. Though the couple met quite often, they never spoke a word during their date. After Sahir was done with smoking and left, Amrita would pick up the butts and smoke them, hoping that they would meet someday in the other world. Another reason for rejecting Sahir as a compatible partner for Amrita's father was Sahir's inability to afford a house. As a result, Sahir built a taller house opposite Amrita's residence in Ludhiana.

Death
Sahir Ludhianvi was honored with Padma Shri Award in 1971. He suffered a major heart attack on October 25th, 1980 and passed away in the arms of his friend Dr. R.P. Kapoor. He was 59 years old then. He was later buried in Juhu Muslim cemetery, but his tomb was destroyed in 2010 to make space for other dead bodies.

Notable Films
Aazadi Ki Raah Par, 1949
Naujawaan, 1951
Baazi, 1951
Shahenshah, 1953
Humsafar, 1953
Alif Laila, 1953
Taxi Driver, 1954
House No. 44, 1955
Marine Drive, 1955
Devad, 1955
Pyaasa, 1957
Naya Daur, 1957
Phir Subah Hogi, 1958
Barsat Ki Raat, 1960
Hum Dono, 1961
Taj Mahal, 1963
Gumraah, 1963
Chitralekha, 1964
Waqt, 1965
Humraaz, 1967
Naya Rasta, 1970
Dastan, 1972
Joshila, 1973
Deewar, 1975
Zameer, 1975
Laila Majnu, 1976
Kabhie Kabhie, 1976
Trishul, 1978
Kala Patthar, 1978
The Burning Train, 1980

Distinguished Songs
Aana hai to aa (Naya Daur, 1957)
Ye duniya agar mil bhi jaye to kya hai (Pyaasa, 1957)
Wo subah kabhi to aayegi (Phir Subah Hogi, 1958)
Tu Hindu banega na musalman banega (Dhool ka Phool, 1959)
Allah tero naam, ishwar tero naam (Hum Dono, 1961)
Chalo ek baar phir se ajnabi ban jaye hum dono (Gumraah, 1963)
Aye meri zohrajabein (Waqt, 1965)
Aagey bhi jane na tu (Waqt, 1965)
Main pal do pal ka shayar hoon (Kabhie Kabhie, 1976)
Kabhie kabhie (Kabhi Kabhie, 1976)

Timeline
1921: Was born on March 8th in Ludhiana, Punjab
1934: Parents got divorced
1942: Admitted to Satish Chander Dhawan Government College For Boys, Ludhiana
1943: Expelled from college and went to Lahore
1945: Got his first Urdu poetry "Talkhiyaan" published
1949: Ran away from Lahore to Delhi and later to Bombay
1949: Got a break in his first Bollywood movie "Aazadi Ki Raah Par"
1951: Gained recognition with Guru Dutt's "Baazi"
1964: Won the Filmfare Award for Best Lyricist for "Taj Mahal"
1971: Honored with Padma Shri Award
1977: Won the Filmfare Award for Best Lyricist for "Kabhie Kabhie"
1980: Died in Mumbai on 25th October, aged 59

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #27 on: May 21, 2012, 04:26:33 PM »
Anand Bakshi Biography



Born On: July 21, 1920
Born In: Rawalpindi (now in Pakistan)
Died On: March 30, 2002
Occupation: Bollywood Lyricist
Nationality: Indian

The name, Anand Bakshi is familiar to Hindi film lovers both young and old. In a career spanning several decades, Anand Bakshi penned some of the most memorable songs that has ever been produced by the Hindi film industry. With dreams of becoming a singer, a young man landed in Bombay to acquire a foothold in Bollywood - little did he know then that destiny had different plans for him. With over 600 films to his credit and having worked with the best people in the Hindi film industry, Anand Bakshi earned himself a reputation of a respectable man in Bollywood. All actors wanted to be part of films which had lyrics penned by the legendary Anand Bakshi. And this factor came into play when several actors opted to work with only Anand Bakshi when they inaugurated their respective production houses. Bollywood actors from Rajesh Khanna and Jeetendra to Amitabh Bachchan and Shah Rukh Khan, and music directors from Laxmikant Pyarelal to R D Burman loved and respected the powerhouse called Anand Bakshi.

Early Life
Anand Bakshi was born on July 21, 1920 in the city of Rawalpindi now situated in Pakistan. The lyricist’s forefathers were from the Kuri village situated close to Rawalpindi and some of them also lived in Kashmir. Anand Bakshi’s mother Sumitra died when he was a mere five-year old kid. Hence, it was under the care of his father that Anand Bakshi completed his school and college education. After completing his elementary schooling, Anand Bakshi joined the Cambridge College in Rawalpindi, only to leave his studies midway on March 6 1943, when he was selected to join the Royal Indian Navy as a post boy in 1944.

Anand Bakshi had aspired to become a singer since he was a child and this was precisely why he boarded the H M I S Dilawar and H M I S Bahadur Ship after his appointment in the Indian Navy, thinking that the ship would halt in Bombay, the land of his film ambitions. Unfortunately, the ship did not reach the Bombay docks, leaving Anand Bakshi to work with the Navy for two years followed by a six year stint in the Indian Army before he could finally fulfill his dreams of penning Hindi film songs. On April 5, 1946, Anand Bakshi was expelled from his position in the Indian Navy after he was caught participating in a naval mutiny against the British from the Bombay harbor.

Years Of Tryst
After being expelled from the Indian Navy, Bakshi joined the Indian Army the following year. He served the Indian Army for a period of six years, in between which he went to Bombay to try his luck in Hindi films. Reports claim that during his stay with the Army, Anand Bakshi used to entertain the other soldiers by singing to them his own composed songs. All his friends in the Indian Army always encouraged Anand Bakshi to shift to Bombay and seek employment as a Hindi film writer, singer or actor. Meanwhile, after India got its independence, the family left Rawalpindi and settled at Lucknow in the October of 1947. Four years later, in the year 1951, Bakshi left the Corps of Signals and arrived in Bombay for the first time looking for work. But his efforts went in vain forcing him to return to his home and his job with the Army with the E.M.E. (The Corps of Electrical and Mechanical Engineers).

Meanwhile, Anand Bakshi settled down with Kamla Mohan, a girl who had been his childhood neighbor in Rawalpindi, in the year 1954. Anand Bakshi quit his position in the Indian Army on August 27, 1956 and in the month of October of the same year, traveled to Bombay again in the hope of work. His luck did not favor him the second time too, leaving Anand Bakshi jobless and moneyless on the platforms of local Bombay stations. But not the one to be disillusioned or disheartened, he continued to pen songs, though by then, he already had a collection of more than 60 songs all written by himself. His first poem, which Anand Bakshi had composed as a song, was published in the Sainik Samachar magazine brought out by the Indian Army. This gave Bakshi the impetus to go ahead and try harder to bring to life his dreams.

Living The Dreams
The big break in Anand Bakshi’s life came towards the end of the year 1956. Though Anand Bakshi had planned to enter Bollywood as a singer or a scriptwriter for Hindi films, he was chosen to write the lyrics for the Hindi film 'Bhala Aadmi’. Anand Bakshi penned four songs for the Brij Mohan film and his first written song 'Dharti Ke Laal Na Kar Itna Malaal’ was recorded on November 9, 1956. Nine years later in the year 1965, Anand Bakshi was an established lyricist of Bollywood with films like 'Himalay Ki God Mein’, 'Jab Jab Phool Khile’ and 'Milan’ in his kitty. The latter two endured that Anand Bakshi would further get work with only the best music composers and producers in the world of Hindi cinema. But the first film that made Anand Bakshi popular among the masses was the 1972 Hindi film 'Mome Ki Gudiya’.

'Mome Ki Gudiya’ was also the beginning of the success story between lyricist Anand Bakshi and music director Laxmikant Pyarelal. They went on to work together in a number of films later on, making some of the best songs that Bollywood has ever heard. 1972 also saw the release of popular Hindi film track 'Dum Maro Dum’ from the film 'Hare Rama Hare Krishna’, a track which brought to light the versatility of Anand Bakshi as a lyricist. While he had already made a mark as a Bollywood lyricist, Anand Bakshi got his first opportunity to sing for a Bollywood production in a duet with Lata Mangeshkar. The song 'Baaghon Mein Bahaar Aayee’ was accepted well and Anand Bakshi went on to sing other songs for films like Sholay, Maha Chor, Charas and Balika Badhu. Anand Bakshi loved quawwalis and he wrote as well as sang a number of quawwalis during this part of his career.

His Work
In the span of a very successful career, Anand Bakshi worked in at least 300 films with Laxmikant Pyarelal, almost a 100 films with R D Burman, more than 30 films with Kalyanji & Anandji and a couple of films with new age music composers Anu Malik and Rajesh Roshan.

Trivia
Anand Bakshi was the lyricist of the first recorded songs of popular Bollywood singers Kumar Sanu, Kavita Krisnamurthy, Udit Narayan and Shailendra Singh.
Anand Bakshi worked with such composers who were the sons of popular erstwhile musicians with whom he had also worked. The most popular pairs are S D & R D Burman and Roshan & Rajesh Roshan. In addition, Anand Bakshi also worked with father - son duo film directors Yash Chopra & Aditya Chopra and Manmohan Desai & Ketan Desai.
Such was the popularity of Anand Bakshi that Rajesh Khanna, Dharmendra, Jeetendra, Shashi Kapoor, Sunil Dutt, Amitabh Bachchan and also Sunny Deol, Ajay Devgn and Shah Rukh Khan chose him as their first production’s lyricist.
Anand Bakshi penned the lyrics for the debut films of several Bollywood actors like Rishi Kapoor, Sunny Deol, Jackie Shroff, Amrita Singh, Shah Rukh Khan and Akshay Kumar.
Anand Bakshi’s lyrics have been used and reused in Bollywood and Hollywood. For instance, the song 'Aaj Mausam Bada Beimaan Hai’ was used by Mira Nair for her 2001 Hollywood production 'Monsoon Wedding’. Similarly, the Bollywood hit 'Choli Ke Peeche Kya Hai’ was used in the 2009 release 'Slumdog Millionaire’.

Awards
Anand Bakshi received a record breaking 40 nominations for lyrics written for Hindi films. He has a total of four Filmfare Awards for the best lyricist to his name:
'Aadmi Musafir Hai’ for Apnapan in the year 1977
'Tere Mere Beech’ for Ek Duuje Ke Liye in 1981
'Tujhe Dekha’ for Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge in the year 1995
'Ishq Bina’ for Taal in 1999

In addition to Filmfare Awards, Anand Bakshi also won the best lyricist awards at different events like the Screen and Zee Awards, the Stardust Hero Honda Awards, the Ruby Film Awards, the Aashirwad Film Awards and the Sushma Shama Awards.

Death
Anand Bakshi was a patient of heart and lung ailments in the later stages of life. He was a smoker throughout his life and this had an ill effect on his system. He underwent a heart surgery at Nanavati Hospital in Bombay after being admitted under a condition of bacterial infection in 2001. Anand Bakshi succumbed to multiple organ failure and breathed his last on March 30, 2002 in the same hospital. Anand Bakshi was 81 years of age at the time of his death.

Posthumously
Anand Bakshi’s lyrics continued to be used in films released after his death. His last writing was for the film 'Mehbooba’ released in the year 2008.

Timeline
1920: Anand Bakshi was born on July 21.
1925: His mother Sumitra died.
1943: Left college to join the Indian Navy on March 6.
1944: Joined the Indian Navy on July 12.
1946: Was expelled from the Navy for taking part in a mutiny against the British Empire on April 5.
1947: Joined the Indian Army on April 12.
1947: Migrated from Rawalpindi to Lucknow after independence on October 2.
1951: Came to Bombay in search of work in Bollywood.
1954: Married kamla Mohan on October 2.
1956: Quit his position with the Indian Army on August 27.
1956: Came to Bombay the second time in the month of October to look for work as singer and writer in Bollywood.
1956: Recorded his first song for Bollywood on November 9.
1962: Wrote his first quawwali for 'Kaala Samundar’.
1972: Sung his first song for a film with Lata Mangeshkar.
1977: Received the first Filmfare Award for best lyricist for the film 'Apnapan’.
1981: Received the second Filmfare Award for 'Ek Duje Ke Liye’.
1995: Won his third Filmfare Award for 'Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge’.
1999: Won his final Filmfare Award for 'Taal.
2001: Was hospitalized with bacterial infection.
2002: Died in hospital on March 30.
2008: His last movie as lyricist 'Mehbooba’ was released.

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #28 on: May 21, 2012, 04:30:22 PM »
Mehr Lal Soni Zia Fatehabadi Biography



Born On: February 9, 1913
Born In: Kapurthala, Punjab
Died On: August 19, 1986
Career: Urdu Poet
Nationality: Indian

Fame came to Mehr Lal Soni very early in life, even before he went to college. His knack for composing poems in Urdu was recognized and celebrated in Urdu poetic circles long before he found fame throughout the subcontinent. His talent and love for Urdu poetry blossomed during his childhood and grew into a large tree as he went from strength to strength composing his melodious poems. His poems, or ghazals and nazams, were characterized by their ability to touch the heart and mind because of their soft and sweet melody and powerful themes. At the same time, his hand was quite good at prose and the different formats of poetry. He was also quite at ease in molding himself to the changing trends in Urdu literature and this reflected in his ghazals, sonnets, rubiaats and nazms. His voluminous work in Urdu language shows his enormous command and mastery over the language. His work in over six decades had ensured that he is counted as one of the foremost exponent of the Urdu language, rubbing shoulders with the likes of Kaifi Azmi and Nida Fazli. It can safely be said that Mehr Lal added simplicity to colorful Urdu poetry.

Childhood & Early Life
Born in 1913 in Kapurthala, Punjab, Mehr Lal Soni Fatehabadi was the eldest born of a Civil Engineer, Munshi Ram Soni and Shankari Devi. Later in life he adopted the name Zia meaning light as his pen name on the suggestion of his teacher Ghulaam Qadir Farkh Amritsari. He was born into a family whose pedigree can be traced to the Mogul era, when his forefathers migrated to Punjab from Rajasthan. Written records from his family priests show that his great-great-great grandfather was Tansukh Rai Soni. Mehr Lal started his education from the Khalsa Middle School, in Peshawar in 1920 but in 1923 shifted to Maharaja High School, in Rajasthan and completed his schooling in 1929. Mehr Lal went to Lahore in 1930 and received his B.A degree in Persian in 1933 and Masters in English in 1935 from Forman Christian College.

Mehr Lal was an exceptional student and edited the Urdu section of the college magazine publishing what is considered to be the first ever Urdu short story in 1932 called “Sadhu” written by Krishan Chander. At college, he also became infatuated with a Bengali girl called Meera Sen who studied in his college. She would become his friend and muse and was the inspiration for his love poems, which were dedicated to her. Her name also figured prominently in many of his works. During his college days, his literary life was shaped and influenced by Shabbir Hussain Josh Malihabadi and Samdayaar Khan Saghar Nizami with whom he had developed a close friendship. After completing his Master’s, Mehr Lal joined the Reserve Bank of India in 1936, in Delhi, and after 35 years of service, he retired in July 1971. During the course of his service, he was posted to Madras, Bombay and Kanpur.

His Works
The earliest instance of Mehr Lal’s bend towards poetry can be traced back to the year 1925, when he, as a 12-year old, was taught Urdu by Moulvi Asghar Ali Haya Jaipuri, who also imparted him knowledge of Urdu poetry. He also credited his interest in poetry to his mother’s supervision. By the age of sixteen, he had become a familiar name in the Urdu literary circles. In 1930, Mehr Lal became a disciple of Syed Aashiq Hussain Siddiqui Seemab Akbarabadi (1882-1951). Three years later his first book, “Tullu” meaning Dawn was published, while he was still at college. The book received critical comments, due to which he got so disillusioned that he thought of giving up writing as a whole. However, with encouragement from his friends and elders he continued to write. By the time he completed his college education, Mehr Lal had established a name for himself as a respected poet in Urdu. 

With a career spanning 60 years, Mehr Lal produced eighteen works of Urdu literature consisting of one volume each of short stories “Suraj Doob Gayaa” (1981), essays Zaaviyaa Hai Nigaah (1984), presidential addresses “Masnad-e-Sadaarat Se” (1985) and biography “Seemab Akbarabadi- Zikr-e-Seemab” (1985). Apart from that, he penned three volumes of letters and eleven collections of poetry. Additionally, there are numerous works which have remained unpublished. There are also a few works that have been influenced by English poets. They include “Noor e Mashriq" published in 1937, "Gard e Raah” published in 1963 and “Meri Tasveer" published in 2011 in which he even composed Urdu sonnets. Some of Mehr Lal’s other poetic works that were instrumental in giving him fame and renown are “Nai Subah” (1952), “Husn-e-Ghazal” (1964), “Dhoop Aur Chaandni” (1977), “Rang-o-Noor” (1980), “Soch Kaa Safar” (1982) and “Naram Garam Hawaain” (1987).

Style
Mehr Lal wrote rubiaats, qatehs, geets, ghazals, nazms and sonnets, but it is the mastery and command over nazams and ghazals that he is best remembered for. While strictly not under any particular literary group, his compositions seemed to have the traces of many groups. His works have been known for their lyrical beauty, and lucid phrases, which addressed his deepest thoughts and feelings in a delicate and soulful manner. However, the compositions remain rooted in their classical style.

Personal Life
He married Raj Kumari, the daughter of Murli Ram Berera in the year 1942. They had six sons of which the eldest and the youngest followed in his footsteps albeit in English poetry and prose.

Death
In 1986, after a prolonged illness, Mehr Lal Zia Fatehabadi passed away.

Timeline
1913: Mehr Lal was born in Kapurtala.
1929: Completed his schooling from Maharaja High School in Rajasthan.
1930: Became a disciple of Syed Aashiq Hussain Siddiqui Seemab Akbarabadi.
1933: First book “Tullu” was published; Completed his B.A in Persian.
1935: Completed his M.A in English.
1936: Joined the Reserve Bank of India.
1942: Got married to Raj Kumari.
1971: Retired from the Reserve Bank of India.
1986: Mehr Lal passed away after a prolonged illness.

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Re: ~ ~ Biographies Of Indian Writers ~
« Reply #29 on: May 21, 2012, 04:34:12 PM »
Rahul Sankrityayan Biography



Born On: April 9, 1893
Born In: Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh (British India)
Died On: April 14, 1963
Career: Writer, Scholar, Nationalist, Traveler, Polymath, Polyglot
Nationality: Indian

Kedarnath Pandey, who later changed his name to Rahul Sankrityayan, after Gautam Buddha’s son, Rahul and Sankrityayan, meaning Assimilator; did perfect justice in giving himself this new name, for he went on to become a renowned Buddhist scholar. Popularly recalled as the Father of Hindi Travel Literature, his collection of knowledge had begun at an early age of nine, when he ran away from home in order to explore the unexplored. His journey took him to many parts of India and abroad. Even though he had a limited formal education, Sankrityayan learnt many languages all by himself and wrote around 150 books. His writings included an array of subjects. He traveled all around, participated in the Indian Freedom Movement and got jailed thrice for creating anti-British writings and speeches. Sankrityayan became a Buddhist monk and eventually, took up Marxist Socialism. He is often referred to as a Mahapandit (greatest scholar), polymath and polyglot.

Life
Rahul Sankrityayan aka Kedarnath Pandey was born on 9th April, 1893 in Azamgarh District of Uttar Pradesh, India to an orthodox Brahmin family. His father, Govardhan Pandey was a farmer by profession, while his mother, Kulawanti stayed with her parents. Sankrityayan received formal education only up to 8th grade in Urdu medium. However, this didn’t deter him from educating himself as he went on to master many languages by reading and frequently traveling across India and abroad. After the death of both his parents, mother at the age of twenty eight and father at the age of forty five, he was brought up by his grandmother. It was when Rahul was nine that he first ran away from home to explore the world. He visited many pilgrim centers of India and mainly survived on alms. In 1919, the Jallianwala Holocaust impacted him to such a level that he turned into a nationalist, participated actively in Indian freedom for independence, and even went to jail three times in his life.

Career
A writer, a scholar, a socialist, a nationalist, a traveler, a polymath, and a polyglot - with a career as broad as that, it’s highly unlikely that India or any other country for that matter will come across such a figure in a very long time. Even though Sankrityayan’s formal education had ended by 8th grade, he climbed the mountain of paramount knowledge that many educated people across the world failed to. It was as much as theoretical education as it was practical: involving a lot a travel that took him to many parts of India including Ladakh, Kashmir, Kinnaur etc and countries like Nepal, Sri Lanka, Tibet, China, Iran, and Soviet Union. It was Sankrityayan’s urge to learn and search for prestigious artifacts including manuscripts of Pali and Sanskrit, paintings, and even books. Such was his glory that the Patna Museum in Patna, Bihar has dedicated a special section to a number of items brought back by Rahul.

His Writings
Rahul Sankrityayan’s writing and scholarly career had begun when he was in his twenties. Over the years, he had written around 150 books covering a variety of subjects such as sociology, history, philosophy, Buddhism, science, drama, folklore, politics, tibetology, lexicography, biographies, autobiography, essays, and pamphlets in as many as five languages: Hindi, Sanskrit, Bhojpuri, Pali, and Tibetan. His book “Volga se Ganga” translating to “A journey from Volga to Ganga”, a 7500-years of historical accounts woven with fiction and then published, is one of his major accomplishments. The book begins in 6000 BC and ends in 1942 AD and presents a fictional account of migration of Aryans from the steppes of the Eurasia to regions around the Volga river; then their movements across the Hindukush and the Himalayas and the sub-Himalayan regions; and their spread to the Indo-Gangetic plains of the subcontinent of India. The book got translated in Tamil, Telegu, and Malayalam and remains hugely popular among youth intellectuals in Kerala till date. His book “Madhya Asia ka Itihaas” even won him the Sahitya Academy Award in 1958 and a Padmabhushan Award in 1963. If this wasn’t all, Sankrityayan was made the professor of Indology by the University of Leningrad, twice.

Personal Life
Since Sankrityayan got married at a very young age, he never came to know who his child-wife was. It was on his second visit to Soviet Union where he went to teach about Buddhism in the University of Leningrad, when he met Ellena Narvertovna Kozerovskaya aka Lola, a Mongolian scholar. The two got married and had a son named Igor. However, both mother and child were not allowed to travel to India when Rahul went back after completing his teaching assignment. It is said that later in his life he married a Nepali lady and had a daughter named Jaya and a son named Jeta.

Death
During his teaching stint at the Sri Lankan University, a combination of diabetes, high blood pressure, a stroke had left Sankrtiyayan seriously ill. It was in Darjeeling that he breathed his last breath and passed away on 14th April, 1963.

Awards in His Honor
Rahul Sankrityayan National Award - Awarded to those who have contributed to Hindi travel Literature (also called Travel Litterateur's Honour) by the Kendriya Hindi Sansthan, Government of India
Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan Paryatan Puraskar  - Awarded for contributing significantly in the field of travelogue and Discovery and Research in Hindi, for books written originally in Hindi on Tourism related subjects by the Ministry Of Tourism, Government of India

Timeline
1893: Rahul Sankrityayan was born.
1937-38: Was appointed as the Professor of Indology by the University of Leningrad.
1947-48: Was appointed as the Professor of Indology by the University of Leningrad, for the second time.
1958: Received Sahitya Academy Award for his book Madhya Asia ka Itihas.
1963: Received a Padmabhushan Award.
1963: Died at the age of 70.